Corrosion caused by thawing and freezing
In the event of freezing and thawing, the concrete is damaged by periodic cycles. The concrete solidity in these conditions also decreases. The water in the capillary pores of the cement stone and in the additive material turns into ice. Ice formation is associated with an increase in volume of about 9%. This increase causes internal stress, which contributes to the concrete destruction.
Artificially entangled airborne micro pores act as additional expansion space for water freezing and serve to increase the frost resistance of concrete.
Water cement ratio, air content, type and amount of cement are a major factor in the frost resistance of hardened concrete.
Environment: Moderate water saturation without thawing agent.
Example: Vertical surfaces exposed to rain and freezing.
Additional classes covered: XC1, XC2, XC3, XA1
Environment: Moderate water saturation with thawing agent.
Example: Vertical concrete surfaces of road structures exposed to freezing and thawing and surfaces exposed to aerosols with de-icing agents.
Additional classes covered: XC1, XC2
Environment: High water saturation without thawing agents.
Example: Horizontal concrete surfaces exposed to rain and freezing.
Additional classes covered: XC1, XC2, XC3, XC4, XF1, XA1, XM1
Environment: High water saturation thaw substance or seawater.
Example: Pavements of roads and bridges exposed to de-icing agents. Concrete surfaces, directly exposed to aerosols containing de-icing agents, and exposed to freezing. Zones of seawater splash in marine constructions exposed to freezing.
Additional classes covered: XC1, XC2, XC3, XC4, XS1, XF1, XF2, XF3, XD1, XD2, XA1, XM1