Impact of the environment on hardened concrete and its durability

The selector for the Class of Influence over the Environment provides important information about the selection of concrete depending on the environment. This tool is user friendly, fast and easy to use.

Concrete class XC

Concrete Class XC is used in risk of corrosion areas caused by carbonization. When the concrete is reinforced or the concrete contains metal parts in it and it is exposed to air and moisture

ALWAYS DRY OR WET

Concrete inside buildings with low air humidity. Concrete immersed in water. Concrete XC1 is not suitable for outdoor application.

UNDER WATER, RARELY DRY

Concrete surfaces subject to continuous contact with water. In many cases it is applicable for fundamentals.

MODERATE HUMIDITY

Concrete inside buildings with moderate or high air humidity. Outdoor concrete protected from rain.

CYCLICAL WETTING AND DRYING

Concrete surfaces in contact with water, but not in class XC2 for impact.

Suitable concrete:

Additionally covered classes:

Concrete class XD

Concrete Class XC is used in risk of corrosion areas caused by carbonization. When the concrete is reinforced or the concrete contains metal parts in it and it is exposed to air and moisture

MODERATE HUMIDITY

Concrete surfaces exposed to chlorides dispersed in the air.

UNDER WATER, RARELY DRY

Swimming pools. Concrete put under the action of industrial waters containing chlorides.

CYCLICAL WETTING AND DRYING

Parts of bridges exposed to salts, containing chlorides. Road pavements. Pavements for car parking.

Suitable concrete:

Additionally covered classes:

Concrete class XS

The concrete class XS is used if there is a risk of corrosion due to chlorides from seawater. When a concrete is reinforced or contains metal parts in it that enter into contact with the chloride from the sea water or aerosols from sea water.

IMPACT OF AEROSOLS WITH NOT IN CONTACT WITH SEAWATER

Structures near to or on the seashore.

PERMANENTLY UNDER WATER

Parts of the maritime constructions.

AREAS OF TIDES, SPLASHING AND SPRAYING OF SEAWATER

Parts of the maritime constructions.

Suitable concrete:

Additionally covered classes:

Concrete class XF

Concrete Class XF is designed for use under conditions of periodic freeze/thaw cycles with or without de-icing agents. When the concrete is wet and is exposed to periodic freeze/thaw cycles.

MODERATE WATER SATURATION WITHOUT THAWING AGENT

Vertical surfaces exposed to rain and freezing.

MODERATE WATER SATURATION WITH THAWING AGENT

Vertical concrete surfaces of road structures exposed to freezing and thawing and surfaces exposed to aerosols with de-icing agents.

HIGHLY WATER SATURATION WITHOUT THAWING AGENT

Horizontal concrete surfaces exposed to rain and freezing.

HIGHLY WATER SATURATION THAW SUBSTANCE OR SEAWATER

Pavements of roads and bridges exposed to de-icing agents. Concrete surfaces, directly exposed to aerosols containing de-icing agents, and exposed to freezing. Zone of seawater splash in marine constructions exposed to freezing.

Suitable concrete:

Additionally covered classes:

Concrete class XA

Concrete Class XA is used in conditions of chemically aggressive impact. Such conditions are created when the concrete is subjected to an aggressive chemical action that takes place in the natural soil and in underground water with the speed of the water, low enough to be accepted for hydrostatic factor of impact.

CHEMICALLY LOW AGGRESSIVE

CHEMICALLY MODERATE AGGRESSIVE

CHEMICALLY HIGHLY AGGRESSIVE

Suitable concrete:

Additionally covered classes:

Concrete class XM

According to DIN EN 206-1/DIN EN 1045-2, for concretes with resistance to abrasion/wear, for enhancing the durability of the concrete cover, additional requirements are introduced.

ZONES WITH MODERATE WEAR

Internal flooring. Industrial floors - bearing or with reinforced surface layer.

ZONES WITH MODERATE WEAR

Internal flooring and external paving. Industrial floors - bearing or with reinforced surface layer.

ZONES WITH HIGH WEAR

Internal flooring and external paving. Industrial floors - bearing or with reinforced surface layer, loaded by forklifts with air or solid tires with treads.

Suitable concrete:

Additionally covered classes: